Sky Journal of Biochemistry Research Vol. 5(6), pp. 075-082, December, 2016.  Available online

ISSN 2315-8786 ©2016 Sky Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Ecology of human schistosomiasis intermediate host and plant molluscicides used for control: A review

Sylvester Chibueze Izah* and Tariwari C. N. Angaye


Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.  


Accepted 7 October, 2016




Schistosomiasis is a vector-borne disease, caused by parasites of the genus Schistosoma. The disease is endemic in several countries in the world including Nigeria. The parasite that causes schistosomiasis requires the intermediate host (snails), humans, slow flowing or stagnant water to cause infection. The snails that transmit human schistosomiasis are of the genus Bulinus (which causes urinary schistosomiasis and are transmitted by Schistosoma haematobium) and Biomphalaria (which transmit intestinal schistosomiasis and can be transmitted by Schistosoma mansoni). These snails could be controlled by studying their ecology. Elimination of these snails is one suitable approach through which the parasite can be controlled. Besides environmental manipulation and application of synthetic molluscicides, the use of plant based molluscicides can be effective method for the control of the snails. Some plant with base molluscicides includes Azadirachta indica, Jatropha Curcas, Jatropha glauca, Zanha goluogensis, Talinium trangulare, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Terminalia catappa, Carica papaya, Rhizophora mangle, R. racemosa, Avicennia germinans and Languncularia racemosa. The ecotoxicological potential of plant-derived molluscicides needs to be unraveled, prior to their field application. Hence research should be focused on potential toxicity on other aquatic organisms to determine at what concentration the extract could be toxic to non-targeted species that co-habit with intermediate host (snails).


Key words: Environment, parasites, plant molluscicides, schistosomiasis snails.



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